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Cleavage of RIPK1 by caspase-8 is crucial for limiting apoptosis and necroptosis.

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2019

Nature. 2019 Oct;574(7778):428-431. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1548-x. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Cleavage of RIPK1 by caspase-8 is crucial for limiting apoptosis and necroptosis.

K Newton;KE Wickliffe;DL Dugger;A Maltzman;M Roose-Girma;M Dohse;L Kömüves;JD Webster;VM Dixit

Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Service type: Knock-in mice

Abstract

The aspartate-specific cysteine protease caspase-8 suppresses necroptotic cell death mediated by RIPK3 and MLKL. Indeed, mice that lack caspase-8 die in a RIPK3- and MLKL-dependent manner during embryogenesis1-3. In humans, caspase-8 deficiency is associated with immunodeficiency4 or very early onset inflammatory bowel disease5. The substrates that are cleaved by caspase-8 to prevent necroptosis in vivo have not been defined. Here we show that knock-in mice that express catalytically inactive caspase-8(C362A) die as embryos owing to MLKL-dependent necroptosis, similar to caspase-8-deficient mice. Thus, caspase-8 must cleave itself, other proteins or both to inhibit necroptosis. Mice that express caspase-8(D212A/D218A/D225A/D387A), which cannot cleave itself, were viable, as were mice that express c-FLIP or CYLD proteins that had been mutated to prevent cleavage by caspase-8. By contrast, mice that express RIPK1(D325A), in which the caspase-8 cleavage site Asp325 had been mutated, died mid-gestation. Embryonic lethality was prevented by inactivation of RIPK1, loss of TNFR1, or loss of both MLKL and the caspase-8 adaptor FADD, but not by loss of MLKL alone. Thus, RIPK1(D325A) appears to trigger cell death mediated by TNF, the kinase activity of RIPK1 and FADD-caspase-8. Accordingly, dying endothelial cells that contain cleaved caspase-3 were abnormally abundant in yolk sacs of Ripk1D325A/D325A embryos. Heterozygous Ripk1D325A/+ cells and mice were viable, but were also more susceptible to TNF-induced cell death than were wild-type cells or mice. Our data show that Asp325 of RIPK1 is essential for limiting aberrant cell death in response to TNF, consistent with the idea that cleavage of RIPK1 by caspase-8 is a mechanism for dismantling death-inducing complexes.

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