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GPR18 is required for a normal CD8αα intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment.

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2014

J Exp Med. 2014 Oct 27. pii: jem.20140646. [Epub ahead of print]

GPR18 is required for a normal CD8αα intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment.

X Wang;H Sumida;JG Cyster

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143

Service type: Knockout mice

Abstract

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) play an important role in maintaining the physiology of the small intestine. The majority of mouse IELs express CD8αα and are either γδ or αβ T cells. Although the development and homing of CD8αα IELs have been studied in some detail, the factors controlling their homeostasis and positioning are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) is abundantly expressed in CD8αα IELs and that mice lacking this orphan receptor have reduced numbers of γδT IELs. Mixed bone marrow chimera experiments reveal a markedly reduced contribution of GPR18-deficient cells to the CD8αα IEL compartment and a reduction in the CD8αβ T cell subset. These defects could be rescued by transduction with a GPR18-expressing retrovirus. The GPR18-deficient γδT IELs that remained in mixed chimeras had elevated Thy1, and there were less granzyme B+ and Vγ7+ cells, indicating a greater reduction in effector-type cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated GPR18 deficiency more strongly affected the CD8αα cells in the intraepithelial compared with the adjacent lamina propria compartment. These findings establish a requirement for GPR18 in CD8αα and CD8αβ IELs, and we suggest the receptor has a role in augmenting the accumulation of CD8 T cells in the intraepithelial versus lamina propria compartment.

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