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Defective lysosome reformation during autophagy causes skeletal muscle disease

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2021

J Clin Invest. 2021 Jan 4;131(1):e135124. doi: 10.1172/JCI135124.

Defective lysosome reformation during autophagy causes skeletal muscle disease

Meagan J McGrath, Matthew J Eramo, Rajendra Gurung, Absorn Sriratana, Stefan M Gehrig, Gordon S Lynch, Sonia Raveena Lourdes, Frank Koentgen, Sandra J Feeney, Michael Lazarou, Catriona A McLean, Christina A Mitchell

Cancer Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Ozgene Pty Ltd., Perth, Australia. Neuroscience Program Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Melbourne, Australia.

Service type: Knockout mice

Abstract

The regulation of autophagy-dependent lysosome homeostasis in vivo is unclear. We show the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5K regulates autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a lysosome recycling pathway, in muscle. INPP5K hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) and INPP5K mutations cause muscular dystrophy by unknown mechanisms. We report loss of INPP5K in muscle causes severe disease, autophagy inhibition and lysosome depletion. Reduced PI(4,5)P2 turnover on autolysosomes in Inpp5k-/- muscle suppresses autophagy and lysosome repopulation via ALR inhibition. Defective ALR in Inpp5k-/- myoblasts was characterised by enlarged autolysosomes and the persistence of hyperextended reformation tubules, structures that participate in membrane-recycling to form lysosomes. Reduced disengagement of the PI(4,5)P2 effector clathrin was observed on reformation tubules which we propose interferes with ALR completion. Inhibition of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, or expression of wild-type, but not INPP5K-disease mutants in INPP5K-depleted myoblasts restored lysosomal homeostasis. Therefore, bidirectional interconversion of PI(4)P/PI(4,5)P2 on autolysosomes is integral to lysosome replenishment and autophagy function in muscle. Activation of TFEB-dependent de novo lysosome biogenesis did not compensate for loss of ALR in Inpp5k-/- muscle, revealing a dependence on this lysosome recycling pathway. Therefore, in muscle, ALR is indispensable for lysosome homeostasis during autophagy and when defective is associated with muscular dystrophy. Keywords: Autophagy; Cell Biology; Lysosomes; Muscle Biology; Skeletal muscle.

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